Following a national competition, Valérie Pécresse, the Minister for Higher Education and Research, announced 34 research laboratories as Carnot Instituts, to be financed at about 60 million € per year.
Carnot Instituts are a network of high quality French research establishments named for five years. Modelled after the German Fraunhofer Instituts, they are financed generously to encourage collaborative research between public laboratories and private partners. Funds received by Carnot Instituts are provided via the Agence National de Recherche (ANR). The level of these matching funds is calculated on the basis of research contracts between the Institut and private partners.