Institut du Cerveau https://institutducerveau-icm.org Thu, 25 Feb 2021 11:24:01 +0000 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.13 hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.13 Real-time dialogue between experimenters and dreamers during REM sleep https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/real-time-dialogue-between-experimenters-and-dreamers-during-rem-sleep/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/real-time-dialogue-between-experimenters-and-dreamers-during-rem-sleep/#respond Thu, 18 Feb 2021 16:22:37 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20861 Dreams take us to a different reality, a hallucinatory world that feels as real as any waking experience. These often-bizarre episodes are emblematic of human sleep For more information ]]> Dreams take us to a different reality, a hallucinatory world that feels as real as any waking experience. These often-bizarre episodes are emblematic of human sleep but have yet to be adequately explained. Retrospective dream reports are subject to distortion and forgetting, presenting a fundamental challenge for neuroscientific studies of dreaming. Here we show that individuals who are asleep and in the midst of a lucid dream (aware of the fact that they are currently dreaming) can perceive questions from an experimenter and provide answers using electrophysiological signals. We implemented our procedures for two-way communication during polysomnographically verified rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in 36 individuals. Some had minimal prior experience with lucid dreaming, others were frequent lucid dreamers, and one was a patient with narcolepsy who had frequent lucid dreams. During REM sleep, these individuals exhibited various capabilities, including performing veridical perceptual analysis of novel information, maintaining information in working memory, computing simple answers, and expressing volitional replies. Their responses included distinctive eye movements and selective facial muscle contractions, constituting correctly answered questions on 29 occasions across 6 of the individuals tested. These repeated observations of interactive dreaming, documented by four independent laboratory groups, demonstrate that phenomenological and cognitive characteristics of dreaming can be interrogated in real time. This relatively unexplored communication channel can enable a variety of practical applications and a new strategy for the empirical exploration of dreams.

Source

Real-time dialogue between experimenters and dreamers during REM sleep. Konkoly KR. et al. Current Biology, février 2021 DOI: https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)00059-2

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/real-time-dialogue-between-experimenters-and-dreamers-during-rem-sleep/feed/ 0
International Education Day https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/international-education-day/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/international-education-day/#respond Mon, 25 Jan 2021 16:05:55 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20738 On the occasion of the third International Education Day, the Paris Brain Institute recalls its commitments and actions in the field of education and learning.  For more information ]]> On the occasion of the third International Education Day, the Paris Brain Institute recalls its commitments and actions in the field of education and learning. 

Since 2014, the Paris Brain Institute through its training organization, Open Brain School, has been innovating by offering unique programs with new pedagogical approaches.

What we know about the brain and how it works can be applied to much more than fighting neurological and psychiatric diseases. The brain is, in itself, the essence of who we are. Almost every aspect of our daily lives is directly related to neuroscience. The learning process itself can benefit from neuroscience-based knowledge.

The Paris Brain Institute runs various training programs with key results. The number of programs and participants is constantly growing with nearly 12 programs and 1500 participants in 2019.

Our goal is to provide training programs in cutting-edge research areas, new technologies, improve clinical and paramedical skills and refine multidisciplinary competencies. Also offering educational programs for all ages and all audiences, the Paris Brain Institute’s long-term goal is to contribute to the training of “neuro-citizens”.

For more information: openbrainschool.com

 

Focus: France Brain Bee, the neuroscience competition

 

On the occasion of the International Education Day, Open Brain School wishes to highlight its flagship education program for the youngest the “France Brain Bee”.

France Brain Bee is a neuroscience competition for middle and high school students. Students from secondary to high school can participate in this annual event. In addition to inspiring careers in neuroscience, the overall mission of the Brain Bee initiative is to educate students about the brain, its functions, and to dispel misconceptions about neurological and psychiatric diseases. Some schools have created neuroscience clubs with students who meet regularly to review knowledge in preparation for the national Brain Bee event.

Each year the winner of France Brain Bee has the honor to represent France for the International Brain Bee (IBB) competition. Thanks to a real international experience, this annual competition gives a chance to the participants to meet students passionated about neuroscience from all over the world. This year, the International Brain Bee (IBB), will take place in San Diego, USA.

 

https://openbrainschool.com/en/program/france-brain-bee/

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/international-education-day/feed/ 0
The Paris Brain Institute signs the ALBA declaration on equity and inclusion https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/paris-brain-institute-signs-alba-declaration-equity-and-inclusion/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/paris-brain-institute-signs-alba-declaration-equity-and-inclusion/#respond Fri, 22 Jan 2021 18:00:15 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20727 The Paris Brain Institute has endorsed the ALBA declaration on equity and inclusion, in its effort for more equity and inclusion in neurosciences.

By signing this For more information ]]> The Paris Brain Institute has endorsed the ALBA declaration on equity and inclusion, in its effort for more equity and inclusion in neurosciences.

By signing this declaration, the Paris Brain Institute is now part of network of more than 150 scientific organisations committed to more diversity and equity in the scientific world.

The ALBA Network gathers neuroscientists from all over the world with the objective to develop fair and inclusive scientific communities. It focuses on two obstacles to equity and inclusion: implicit biases and discriminatory workplace culture.

It is very important for the Paris Brain Institute to engage with the ALBA network for more diversity, inclusion and equity in science. Over the last years, together with our gender equity committee, we strengthen our commitment to these issues and hope to go even further by joining this network.”

Prof Alexis Brice, Executive director of the Paris Brain Institute.

 

The XX initiative, a grass root movement comprising all scientific personnel categories of the Paris Brain Institute, enabled the creation of the Gender equity committee. As we experienced locally, a collective coordination is necessary to move things forward. We are therefore very enthusiastic that the Institute, by joining the ALBA network, shares our equity ambitions.”

The gender equity committee of the Paris Brain Institute.

 

]]> https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/paris-brain-institute-signs-alba-declaration-equity-and-inclusion/feed/ 0
Study confirms that SARS-CoV-2 can infect neurons https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/sars-cov-2-can-infect-neurons/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/sars-cov-2-can-infect-neurons/#respond Sat, 16 Jan 2021 09:03:20 +0000 Ines Haddad https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20670 Although COVID-19 is considered to be primarily a respiratory disease, SARS-CoV-2 affects multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Yet, For more information ]]> Although COVID-19 is considered to be primarily a respiratory disease, SARS-CoV-2 affects multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Yet, there is no consensus on the consequences of CNS infections. Here, we used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain.

First, using human brain organoids, we observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons. However, no evidence for type I interferon responses was detected. We demonstrate that neuronal infection can be prevented by blocking ACE2 with antibodies or by administering cerebrospinal fluid from a COVID-19 patient. Second, using mice overexpressing human ACE2, we demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in vivo.

3d by sheet imaging that shows the presence of the virus in the neurons of the olfactory bulb

Finally, in autopsies from patients who died of COVID-19, we detect SARS-CoV-2 in cortical neurons and note pathological features associated with infection with minimal immune cell infiltrates. These results provide evidence for the neuroinvasive capacity of SARS-CoV-2 and an unexpected consequence of direct infection of neurons by SARS-CoV-2.

Reference:

Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain, Eric Song, Ce Zhang, Benjamin Israelow, Alice Lu-Culligan, Alba Vieites Prado, Sophie Skriabine, Peiwen Lu, Orr-El Weizman, Feimei Liu, Yile Dai, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Yuki Yasumoto, Guilin Wang, Christopher Castaldi, Jaime Heltke, Evelyn Ng, John Wheeler, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Etienne Levavasseur, Benjamin Fontes, Neal G. Ravindra, David Van Dijk, Shrikant Mane, Murat Gunel, Aaron Ring, Syed A. Jaffar Kazmi, Kai Zhang, Craig B Wilen, Tamas L. Horvath, Isabelle Plu, Stephane Haik, Jean-Leon Thomas, Angeliki Louvi, Shelli F. Farhadian, Anita Huttner, Danielle Seilhean, Nicolas Renier, Kaya Bilguvar, Akiko Iwasaki, Journal of Experimental Medicine, January 2021.

J Exp Med (2021) 218 (3): e20202135.

https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202135

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/sars-cov-2-can-infect-neurons/feed/ 0
New European alliance formed to tackle urgent challenge of neurodegenerative diseases https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-european-alliance-neurodegenerative-diseases/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-european-alliance-neurodegenerative-diseases/#respond Thu, 17 Dec 2020 15:01:38 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20497 Top research institutes from Germany, France, Belgium and the UK have formed a new alliance to combat neurodegenerative diseases. Their mission? Catalysing a United For more information ]]> Top research institutes from Germany, France, Belgium and the UK have formed a new alliance to combat neurodegenerative diseases. Their mission? Catalysing a United Response in Europe to Neurodegenerative Diseases, or CURE-ND for short.

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, affect millions of people globally, with a significant impact on individuals, families, economies and wider society. Worldwide, around 50 million people have some form of dementia, and there are nearly 10 million new cases every year. Finding ways to prevent, treat and cure neurodegeneration is one of today’s most urgent medical needs.

Leading neuroscientists from four top European research institutes believe that collaboration is the best way forward to meet this challenge. The German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), the Paris Brain Institute, Mission Lucidity in Belgium and the UK Dementia Research Institute have committed to share expertise and present a strong united voice to champion brain research and put an end to historic underfunding of the field in Europe.

Prof. Pierluigi Nicotera, Scientific Director of DZNE: “The added value of connecting the major European organizations that conduct research into neurodegeneration has become increasingly clear in recent years.” A new alliance is now born: CURE-ND. “With CURE-ND, we want to catalyse a united response in Europe to tackle these diseases.”

“Together, we represent a critical mass of more than 2000 researchers”, adds Prof. Alexis Brice, Director General of the Paris Brain Institute. “We have clear synergies and complementarities among our centres, which should allow a very efficient and powerful response. Our alliance embraces a joint effort to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and nurture breakthroughs in the field of neurodegenerative diseases.”

Prof. Dr. Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Scientific Chairman of Mission Lucidity: “Our ambitious initiative ranges from uncovering disease mechanisms to improving clinical care. CURE-ND will facilitate the development and global implementation of neurotechnologies that enhance care for today’s and tomorrow’s patients.”

Besides bringing together excellent science to accelerate research and improve clinical care, CURE-ND aims to raise global awareness of the need to urgently address the challenge of neurodegenerative diseases, and to lobby for the necessary funding to be committed to research in this area. The partners are calling for a long-term vision and funding of brain research by Europe.

“Collaborating across borders to address neurodegeneration is more important than ever. With the ongoing pandemic, budget cuts in Horizon Europe and uncertainty around Brexit, I’m proud that these leading institutes are taking responsibility for driving forward much-needed progress. Now is the time to pull together, not pull apart”, concludes Prof. Bart De Strooper, Director of the UK Dementia Research Institute.

About DZNE

The German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) investigates all aspects of neurodegenerative diseases in order to develop novel approaches of prevention, treatment and health care. The DZNE is comprised of ten sites across Germany and cooperates closely with universities, university hospitals, and other institutions on a national and international level. The DZNE is a member of the Helmholtz Association. www.dzne.de/en

About Mission Lucidity

Founded in 2018, Mission Lucidity is a partnership between four research institutes in Leuven, Belgium: imec, KU Leuven, UZ Leuven and VIB. Together, they aim to develop ground-breaking technologies to better understand, predict, diagnose and treat neurodegenerative diseases. www.missionlucidity.com 

About the Paris Brain Institute

Created in 2010, the Paris Brain Institute is a scientific and medical research centre of international excellence, located in Paris in the heart of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. Its innovative model brings together patients, doctors, researchers and entrepreneurs in one place with a common goal: to understand the brain and accelerate the discovery of new treatments for diseases of the nervous system. The Institute thus includes a network of more than 700 researchers and clinicians, 10 cutting-edge technological platforms, 1 clinical investigation centre and more than 1,000m² for the incubation of start-ups. Since 2017, it has also been Station F’s health partner, giving it a competitive advantage in the field of connected healthcare. This year, the Paris Brain Institute celebrates its tenth anniversary. https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/

About the UK Dementia Research Institute

The UK Dementia Research Institute (UK DRI) is the single biggest investment in dementia research in the UK. Established in 2017 by its founding funders, the Medical Research Council, Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer’s Research UK, the £290 million institute is hosted across six leading UK universities: University of Cambridge, Cardiff University, University of Edinburgh, Imperial College London and King’s College London, with its central hub at UCL. The UK DRI works on ways to prevent, treat and care for people with all types of dementia, and ways to keep the brain healthy. www.ukdri.ac.uk

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-european-alliance-neurodegenerative-diseases/feed/ 0
New insights on a major protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-insights-alzheimer-disease/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-insights-alzheimer-disease/#respond Wed, 16 Dec 2020 16:36:34 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20487 New study conducted by Irini Kessissoglou in the “Brain development” team headed by Bassem Hassan at Paris Brain Institute reveals new functions for the Amyloid For more information ]]> New study conducted by Irini Kessissoglou in the “Brain development” team headed by Bassem Hassan at Paris Brain Institute reveals new functions for the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) homologue in drosophila. Results are published in PLOS Biology.

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an essential protein, best known for its involvement in the pathway at the origin of amyloid beta, the component of the main lesion in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the amyloid plaques. Mutations in the APP gene are linked with early-onset familial cases of AD. However, the physiological role of APP in adult brain function and whether there is any link between this normal role and defects seen in AD remains unclear. To address this issue, Kessissoglou et al. investigated the function of this protein in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, a model organism often used in biomedical research which possesses a homologue of APP, called APPL (Amyloid precursor protein like).

Neurons, like all cells, possess a system called the endolysosomal recycling and degradation pathway for separating, recycling and, when necessary, trashing its proteins. This system guarantees protein and organelles balance neurons and it has been shown to be defective in human neurons with AD patient mutations, suggesting that APP may be be important for this process under normal conditions.

Using Drosophila model of APPL loss of function, the authors explored the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the brain homeostasis, which can be defined as the physiological processes necessary to maintain brain health and restoring balance in case of injury or diseases.

They identified a pathway crucial for adult brain homeostasis involving APPL. Indeed, APPL loss of function leads in a disruption of the endolysosomal function in neurons followed by cell death. The dead neuronal cell, which are significantly increased with the loss of APPL, accumulate in the brain at early age. Moreover, not only did flies lacking APPL have a shorter lifespan and neurodegeneration by 30 days old (a middle-old age at the scale of a Drosophila), their brain also showed signs of dysfunctional homeostasis as early as 7 days old.

One key point of the study is the evidence that the extracellular domain of APPL secreted by neurons interacts with glial cells to regulate their endolysosomal pathway and enable the clearance of neuronal debris. Glial cells are key elements of brain homeostasis as they are involved in immune response, providing nutrients to neurons and clearance of cellular wastes. Overall, this suggest that APPL is part of a neuro-glial signaling system responsible for monitoring brain health.

The results of this study bring new insights on the role of APP in a physiological context and highlight its importance for adult brain homeostasis. The findings regarding the consequences of the loss of APP suggests a strong link between its physiological functions and the defects observed in familial cases of Alzheimer’s disease. The early effects observed in flies lacking APPL support the idea of long-term modifications in the brain occurring before the onset of clinical symptoms, fostering new research on early endosomes and neuro-glial interactions in this disease.

Source


The Drosophila amyloid precursor protein homologue mediates neuronal survival and neuroglial interactions.

Kessissoglou IA, Langui D, Hasan A, Maral M, Dutta SB, Hiesinger PR, Hassan BA.PLoS Biol. 2020 Dec 8

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/new-insights-alzheimer-disease/feed/ 0
the L’Oréal-UNESCO Foundation rewards Maha DAHAWI, doctoral student at the Paris Brain Institute https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/the-loreal-unesco-foundation-rewards-maha-dahawi-doctoral-student-at-the-paris-brain-institute/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/the-loreal-unesco-foundation-rewards-maha-dahawi-doctoral-student-at-the-paris-brain-institute/#respond Fri, 11 Dec 2020 09:21:28 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20443 The 2020 “Young Talents for Women and Science in Sub-Saharan Africa” prize from the L'Oréal-UNESCO Foundation rewards Maha DAHAWI, doctoral student at the Paris For more information ]]> The 2020 “Young Talents for Women and Science in Sub-Saharan Africa” prize from the L’Oréal-UNESCO Foundation rewards Maha DAHAWI, doctoral student at the Paris Brain Institute for her research carried out as a collaboration between France (Paris Brain Institute-Sorbonne Université ) under the supervision of Pr.Eric LEGUERN and Sudan (Faculty of Medicine -University of Khartoum ) under the supervision of Pr. Ammar ELTAHIR.

Maha DAHAWI is one of the 20 laureates selected among 330 candidates from 16 countries, and thanks to this prize, she will be able to continue and consolidate her work on the identification of genes responsible for generalized epilepsies in consanguineous families originating in Sudan within the team co-directed by Stéphanie BAULAC and Prof. Eric LEGUERN at the Brain Institute, and pursue her functional studies on C. Elegans as a collaboration with Nicolas BIZAT.

Before coming to France, she established “Pay It Forward at khartoum University for female medical students to help them overcoming different obstacles they face in science.

Maha is also a member of the XX-initiative for gender Equity of the Paris Brain Institute, she participated in the different seminars and training organized by the committee.

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/the-loreal-unesco-foundation-rewards-maha-dahawi-doctoral-student-at-the-paris-brain-institute/feed/ 0
Claire Wyart receives an ERC Consolidator Grant https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/claire-wyart-receives-an-erc-consolidator-grant/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/claire-wyart-receives-an-erc-consolidator-grant/#respond Wed, 09 Dec 2020 11:48:05 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20437 Claire Wyart, team leader at Paris Brain Institute obtains an ERC Consolidator grant, a competitive European funding, for the scientific excellence of her research For more information ]]> Claire Wyart, team leader at Paris Brain Institute obtains an ERC Consolidator grant, a competitive European funding, for the scientific excellence of her research project.

Her project “Exploratome” aims now to decipher the spatiotemporal structure of motor patterns by investigating how sensory inputs can induce switch in locomotor states.

Each year the European Research Council (ERC) encourages the best scientific projects through competitive calls for proposals open to all researchers in the European Community. The ERC Consolidator Grants are awarded to outstanding researchers with at least seven and up to twelve years of experience after PhD, and an excellent scientific track record.

Claire Wyart is an Inserm research director. She started her team “Optogenetic dissection of circuits underlying locomotion” at Paris Brain Institute in 2011. She received an ERC Starting grant in 2012 for her project “Optoloco” aiming to decipher the role of sensory feedback during locomotion. Her team discovered an interoceptive sensory pathway in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid that interacts with the Reissner fiber in the center of the spinal cord to detect curvature of the spine and that in turn modulates locomotion and posture. The Wyart team discovered that this sensory system also instructs morphogenesis and tastes the content of the cerebrospinal fluid in order to detect and combat pathogens during infections of the central nervous system.

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/claire-wyart-receives-an-erc-consolidator-grant/feed/ 0
Discovery of a plasma signature of fronto-temporal degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis linked to a mutation of the C9orf72 gene https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/als-dft-mutation-c9orf72-gene/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/als-dft-mutation-c9orf72-gene/#respond Thu, 26 Nov 2020 09:10:06 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20373 A joint study by teams from the Paris Brain Institute at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital and from Inria (Rennes and Paris centers) has revealed for the first-time For more information ]]> A joint study by teams from the Paris Brain Institute at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital and from Inria (Rennes and Paris centers) has revealed for the first-time plasma microRNA signatures in individuals with or presymptomatic of fronto-temporal degeneration or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The discovery of this potential new biomarker, published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, represents an important step forward in assessing the clinical progression of patients and the efficacy of future treatment candidates in therapeutic trials.

Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative diseases that may have a common genetic cause, the most common of which is a mutation in the c9orf72 gene. DFTs cause behavioural, language, and emotional control disorders and affect cognitive, reasoning, and judgment abilities. ALS, on the other hand, is a disease of the motor neurons leading to muscle weakness and progressive paralysis.

At present, there is no treatment for these two pathologies. The identification of specific markers of the progression of these pathologies is essential in order to best adapt patient management and evaluate the efficacy of treatment in clinical trials. To this end, the PREV-DEMALS* study, coordinated by Dr. Isabelle Le Ber, is following 22 patients with the c9orf72 mutation, 45 presymptomatic individuals with the mutation and 43 control subjects.

A specificity of these pathologies associated with the c9orf72 mutation is the presence of pathological inclusions consisting of the TDP-43 protein in the brain of patients. TDP-43 plays an important role in the formation of microRNAs (miRNAs), small fragments of genetic material that regulate gene expression. Could the formation of these inclusions in patients’ brains have an effect on miRNA synthesis?

The association of these miRNAs with many neurodegenerative diseases is increasingly suspected. The possibility of measuring their presence in blood plasma makes them all the more interesting as potential biomarkers of the evolution of these diseases.

A collaborative study** conducted by the teams of Isabelle Le Ber (AP-HP) and Olivier Colliot (CNRS, joint team with Inria Paris) at the Paris Brain Institute (Inserm/CNRS/Sorbonne University) and with Emmanuelle Becker at Inria Rennes (IRISA, Dyliss team), as part of Virgilio Kmetzsch’s thesis work, focused on miRNAs present in the plasma of subjects in the PREV-DEMALS cohort.

The researchers identified 4 miRNAs expressed differently between patients and control subjects. Two were over-expressed in patients, while two were under-expressed. One of the two over-expressed miRNAs, MiR-34a-5p, was also over-expressed in presymptomatic subjects, suggesting deregulation of this miRNA associated with the c9orf72 mutation. The second, miR-345-5p, was more expressed in patients compared to presymptomatic subjects, suggesting a correlation between disease progression and increased miRNA expression. The two under-expressed miRNAs were, however, associated with an already fully established pathology. In addition, 4 presymptomatic individuals near the clinical onset of the disease had miRNA expression levels very similar to those of the patients, also showing the value of this signature in determining the timing of clinical conversion.

Taken together, these results highlight for the first time a miRNA transcriptomic signature specific to the presymptomatic and symptomatic stage of FTD/ALS associated with a mutation in the C9orf72 gene. This signature could constitute an important biomarker in these diseases, in particular in the transition to the clinical phase. It could also be used for the initiation and monitoring of therapies administered at an early stage, as early as the presymptomatic phase.

* The PREV-DEMALS cohort is funded by ANR/DGOS PRTS and under AP-HP promotion. Patient follow-up is carried out at the Institute of Memory and Alzheimer’s Disease at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital AP-HP and at the Clinical Investigation Center at the Paris Brain Institute.

** This research is conducted as part of the IPL Neuromarkers project, a large-scale collaboration between Inria and the Paris Brain Institute, whose objective is to develop new computational and statistical approaches for the prediction and study of the evolution of neurodegenerative diseases.

Source

Plasma microRNA signature in presymptomatic and symptomatic subjects with C9orf72-associated frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kmetzsch V. et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2020

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/als-dft-mutation-c9orf72-gene/feed/ 0
Stanley Durrleman, winner of the Inria – Young researcher Prize of the French Academy of Sciences https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/stanley-durrleman-inria-academy-sciences/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/stanley-durrleman-inria-academy-sciences/#respond Tue, 24 Nov 2020 12:30:45 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20363 Stanley Durrleman, co-leader of the "ARAMIS - Algorithms, Models and Methods for Images and Signals of the Human Brain" team at the Paris Brain Institute, received For more information ]]> Stanley Durrleman, co-leader of the “ARAMIS – Algorithms, Models and Methods for Images and Signals of the Human Brain” team at the Paris Brain Institute, received the Inria Young researcher prize from the French Academy of Sciences for his work.

This €20,000 prize rewards the work of Stanley Durrleman and his team on the development of statistical learning methods and the design of predictive models of the evolution of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. He has developed algorithms capable of predicting the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in patients over the next four years. This tool could play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.

I am very honoured to receive this prestigious award. It is recognition of work that has been built at the frontier between several disciplines: mathematics, computer science, neuroscience and medicine. We are now looking to use our tools to help demonstrate the effectiveness of promising treatments by administering them at the right time to the right patient. ”

Stanley Durrleman

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/stanley-durrleman-inria-academy-sciences/feed/ 0
MAKING SENSE OF THE WORLD: THE CEREBRAL BASES OF ABSTRACTION https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/cerebral-bases-abstraction/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/cerebral-bases-abstraction/#respond Thu, 19 Nov 2020 13:40:40 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20340 A study conducted at the Zuckerman Institute of Columbia University (USA) by Jerome Munuera, co-first author and researcher at the Paris Brain Institute, and his For more information ]]> A study conducted at the Zuckerman Institute of Columbia University (USA) by Jerome Munuera, co-first author and researcher at the Paris Brain Institute, and his collaborators, led to the development of the first functional model of abstraction in the brain. The results are published in the prestigious journal Cell.

The curse of dimensionality plagues models of reinforcement learning and decision making. The process of abstraction solves this by constructing variables describing features shared by different instances, reducing dimensionality and enabling generalization in novel situations. Here, we characterized neural representations in monkeys performing a task described by different hidden and explicit variables. Abstraction was defined operationally using the generalization performance of neural decoders across task conditions not used for training, which requires a particular geometry of neural representations. Neural ensembles in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and simulated neural networks simultaneously represented multiple variables in a geometry reflecting abstraction but that still allowed a linear classifier to decode a large number of other variables (high shattering dimensionality). Furthermore, this geometry changed in relation to task events and performance. These findings elucidate how the brain and artificial systems represent variables in an abstract format while preserving the advantages conferred by high shattering dimensionality.

Source

The Geometry of Abstraction in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex. Bernardi S, Benna MK, Rigotti M, Munuera J, Fusi S, Salzman CD. Cell. 2020 Oct 9

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/cerebral-bases-abstraction/feed/ 0
Healthy Mind and Uptale selected for STATION F’s Future 40 ranking https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/healthy-mind-uptale-stationf/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/healthy-mind-uptale-stationf/#respond Wed, 18 Nov 2020 16:00:20 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20350 On November 18, Station F unveiled the second edition of its Future 40 ranking. 2 startups hosted in our incubator iPEPS -The Healthtech Hub are included: Healthy For more information ]]> On November 18, Station F unveiled the second edition of its Future 40 ranking. 2 startups hosted in our incubator iPEPS -The Healthtech Hub are included: Healthy Mind and Uptale.

These start-ups were chosen among the 1.000 companies of STATION F according to different criteria such as their size and growth, their innovative technology, their expertise or their team.

Healthy Mind

Healthy Mind is a startup offering virtual therapies to relieve the pain and anxiety of hospitalized patients.

By combining neuroscience, psychology and virtual reality technologies, the company has developed and commercialized two products:

  • a virtual reality solution that uses the processing power of a computer to deliver real-time experiences while providing in-depth customization and personalized medical hypnosis features to healthcare professionals
  • a completely autonomous solution focused on on the friendliness, the user experience and the ergonomics.

Uptale

Uptale is developing a training solution for companies using immersive learning. The startup deploys a cloud platform using virtual reality at scale and neurotechnologies to create and deliver 360° training.

The different modules made available to companies allow reinforcing the skills of operational teams, improving the onboarding of new employees or creating empathy in different situations.

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/healthy-mind-uptale-stationf/feed/ 0
A new custom-made multi-photon microscope at the Paris Brain Institute https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/custom-made-multi-photon-microscope/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/custom-made-multi-photon-microscope/#respond Wed, 04 Nov 2020 15:39:00 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20260 The Paris Brain Institute has acquired a new state-of-the-art multi-photon microscope thanks to the support of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation. This custom-built For more information ]]> The Paris Brain Institute has acquired a new state-of-the-art multi-photon microscope thanks to the support of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation. This custom-built microscope will enable several teams at the Institute to carry out highly advanced explorations on multiple scales.

For the past few weeks, the Paris Brain Institute has been equipped with a new multi-photon microscope, tailored to the needs of its researchers, thanks to the support of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation, which, along with its Chairwoman, Mrs. Lily Safra, is among the most significant donors to the Institute.

The multi-photon microscope is an instrument that allows scientists to acquire images deep inside the brain of a still developing animal, or while it is performing a behavioural task. This type of instrument is essential for establishing links between brain activity and behaviour.

Because each type of experience is unique, a multi-photon microscope must be versatile and customizable. By working with Bruker, a leading company specializing in the construction of these devices, the experts of the Paris Brain Institute have designed instruments that meet their needs.

Two pulsed infrared lasers, two very sensitive detectors, custom-made microscope stand, and the swivel objective allow a great freedom on the type of samples visualized and experimental conditions. This microscope is particularly well suited for studies in drosophila but can also be used in behavioral studies in zebrafish and mice, conducted by several teams at the Paris Brain Institute. » Basile Gurchenkov, operational manager of the ICM.quant cell imaging platform.

 

ICM.quant Biomimaging core facility : https://quant.institutducerveau-icm.org

 

 

Several teams at the Paris Brain Institute have developed new research projects, using mice and fruit flies, based on special behavioral tests of very high level. The multi-photon microscope represents a major and absolutely essential piece of equipment for the Brain Institute.

Developmental and behavioral imaging work involves long-term experiments, in which each manipulation can occupy the instrument for several hours and sometimes up to 24 hours at a time. The acquisition of this equipment, thanks to the support of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation, provides a real impetus for the advancement of research, in particular our project to understand the cerebral bases of our individuality.“Bassem Hassan, team leader and scientific director of the Paris Brain Institute

I am very proud to make this new contribution to the Paris Brain Institute. I am confident that this cutting-edge equipment, in the hands of the Institute’s remarkable researchers, will lead to important advances in the quest for a fuller understanding of brain diseases.” Mrs. Lily Safra, Chairwoman of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation and Honorary Chairwoman of the Association of Friends of the Paris Brain Institute.

EMERGENCE OF BEHAVIORAL INDIVIDUALITY IN THE FLY’S BRAIN: A GENERAL PRINCIPLE FOR THE NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ORIGIN OF AN ASPECT OF PERSONALITY?

https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/emergence-of-behavioral-individuality/

 

 

About the Edmond J. Safra Foundation

Edmond J. Safra, one of the 20th century’s most accomplished bankers and a devoted philanthropist, established a major philanthropic foundation to ensure that individuals and organizations would continue to receive his assistance and encouragement for many years to come. Under the chairmanship of his beloved wife Lily, the Edmond J. Safra Foundation draws continuing inspiration from its founder’s life and values. It has supported hundreds of organizations in more than 40 countries around the world, largely in its three main areas of focus: education, science and medicine, and religious life. In 2005, it enabled the creation of the Paris Brain Institute by financing the construction of its research building. Even today, its generous loyalty allows researchers to continue their fight against diseases of the nervous system. www.edmondjsafra.org

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/custom-made-multi-photon-microscope/feed/ 0
Alberto Bacci receives the Camille Woringer Award from the Fondation pour la Recherche médicale https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/alberto-bacci-camille-woringer-award/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/alberto-bacci-camille-woringer-award/#respond Tue, 03 Nov 2020 10:59:09 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20234 Alberto Bacci, head of the "Cellular Physiology of Cortical Microcircuits" team at the Paris Brain Institute, received the Camille Woringer Award from the Fondation For more information ]]> Alberto Bacci, head of the “Cellular Physiology of Cortical Microcircuits” team at the Paris Brain Institute, received the Camille Woringer Award from the Fondation pour la Recherche médicale.

The prize, worth €7,000, is intended to support research on brain diseases.

Alberto Bacci’s team is particularly interested in brain circuits of sensory perception. How is sensory information from the environment integrated at the level of the cerebral cortex to generate an adequate response? To answer this question, they study different populations of neurons in the cortex, their interactions and the connections they establish between them. The functioning of these networks requires as many neuron activation processes as inhibition processes in order to control the flow of information. Of particular importance for this are the interneurons. Structured interactions between these different types of cells in the cortex is essential to generate coherent representations of perceived information.

The study of brain circuits involved in the integration of sensory information is essential because several brain pathologies such as schizophrenia or autism are characterized by a disturbance of sensory perception and other cognitive functions. Studying the functioning of these networks is an essential step to better understand the alterations present in neurological and psychiatric diseases in order to provide therapeutic solutions.

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/alberto-bacci-camille-woringer-award/feed/ 0
A promising therapeutic approach in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/therapeutic-approach-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/therapeutic-approach-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als/#respond Tue, 20 Oct 2020 10:35:48 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20148 Paris, October 19th, 2020 - ALS is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons resulting in a progressive and irreversible deficit in walking and speech, For more information ]]> Paris, October 19th, 2020 – ALS is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons resulting in a progressive and irreversible deficit in walking and speech, until a complete paralysis of all muscles, including those controlling respiration. The team led by Séverine Boillée (Inserm researcher) at the Paris Brain Institute has just published work in the prestigious scientific journal Nature Neuroscience, paving the way to a new therapeutic approach for this still incurable disease.

Ten percent of ALS cases are familial, linked to mutations in genes, identified in 2/3 of cases. Experimental models (particularly in mice) in which the SOD1 gene is mutated,  reproduce the clinical phenotype of the disease in humans and are used to study biological mechanisms of the disease, but also give the opportunity to test the efficiency and harmlessness of new treatments before using them in patients for therapeutic trials.

Spinal motor neurons affected in ALS have the particularity of being surrounded both by microglial cells in the spinal cord and by peripheral macrophages in the nerve, which is the part of the motor neuron exiting from the spinal column to connect peripheral muscles.

Macrophages are the blood cells at the forefront of the immune response whose main role is to defend the body against infections but also to contribute to heal the injured tissue during damage. Microglial cells (or microglia) are a subgroup of macrophages located in the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain).

While the role of microglia in motor neuron degeneration in ALS is now recognized, the role of circulating macrophages in disease progression was still controversial mainly because previous studies focused on their infiltration into the central nervous system while their implication, from the periphery, in the nerves during the course of the disease had not been fully demonstrated.

The objective of the project led by Séverine Boillée’s team was to show the involvement of these immune cells from the periphery since they would be more accessible in patients, in order to identify new therapeutic targets.

Using experimental mouse models and tissues of 11 patients suffering from ALS, the researchers were able to show for the first time:

– The ability of peripheral macrophages to influence, from the periphery, microglial cell activation in the central nervous system and motor neurons degeneration, showing a delay in the symptomatic phase and an increase in lifespan in the mouse model.

– Molecular profiles (transcriptomes) of microglial cells (in the spinal cord) and peripheral macrophages (in the sciatic nerve) are very different. This reflects the distinct response of these two cell types although closely related and reacting to the same event, the motor neuron death, and gives the possibility to identify new mechanisms to target for future therapies.

The authors of this work conclude for the first time that peripheral macrophages have an important role in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), thus paving the way to new therapeutic strategies for patients.

In longer term, the development of research aiming at treating neurotoxic macrophages outside the central nervous system, i.e. in a less invasive manner could lead to a significant decrease in motor neuron death in ALS patients.

These results now constitute a promising treatment approach to be explored.

Source:

Modifying macrophages at the periphery has the capacity to change microglial reactivity and to extend ALS survival.

Aude Chiot, Sakina Zaïdi, Charlène Iltis, Matthieu Ribon, Félix Berriat, Lorenzo Schiaffino, Ariane Jolly, Pierre de la Grange, Michel Mallat, Delphine Bohl, Stéphanie Millecamps, Danielle Seilhean, Christian S. Lobsiger and Séverine Boillée

NATURE NEUROSCIENCE. DOI: 10.1038/s41593-020-00718-z.

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/therapeutic-approach-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als/feed/ 0
NEW DATA CONFIRM THE BENEFIT OF DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION TO TREAT OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/brain-stimulation-obsessive-compulsive-disorders/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/brain-stimulation-obsessive-compulsive-disorders/#respond Tue, 13 Oct 2020 14:48:17 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20133 A study by researchers and clinicians from the Paris Brain Institute (Inserm/CNRS/Sorbonne University) and AP-HP (Henri Mondor and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospitals) For more information ]]> A study by researchers and clinicians from the Paris Brain Institute (Inserm/CNRS/Sorbonne University) and AP-HP (Henri Mondor and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospitals) confirms the beneficial effect of deep brain stimulation on several brain structures in severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are resistant to drug treatment. The results are published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

For more than 10 years, deep brain stimulation has been a source of hope for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), considered one of the most disabling disorders by the WHO. OCD is associated with more years of lost years due to disability than multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease combined. It manifests itself in 2 main categories of symptoms: obsessions in the form of thoughts, images with unpleasant content that are involuntarily imposed on the subject. These obsessions generate major anxiety and require the person to perform repeated behaviors and rituals to try to calm these distressing ideas.

Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) and/or serotonergic antidepressants prescribed in high doses to achieve an anti-OCD effect, improve the symptoms of two-thirds of patients. For the remaining third, therapeutic strategies involve complex combinations of treatments, and for a part of them, deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a real therapeutic perspective.

In a new study, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, researchers and clinicians from the Paris Brain Institute analyzed the effects of DBS on three brain structures, the subthalamic nucleus, the accumbens nucleus and the caudate nucleus, in 8 patients with severe OCD resistant to all available treatments. This is the first study comparing the effect of DBS on three distinct targets in the brain in the same patients.

Their results show an almost equivalent reduction in symptoms regardless of the structure stimulated after 3 months of stimulation, but the majority of patients expressed a subjective preference for the stimulation of a region of the subthalamic nucleus, without knowing that it was this structure that was targeted. They also highlight the possibility of identifying early predictors of response to long-term subthalamic nucleus stimulation.

“Consistent with our previous results*, we also observed a significant improvement of symptoms in longer-term in 3 patients responding to subthalamic nucleus stimulation and a partial response in another 3 patients. This suggests that the most beneficial effects of DBS may be delayed and that this should be taken into account in patient follow-up. The “blinded” choice of patients for this target also shows the interest in taking into account clinical dimensions that go beyond the usual quantitative clinical evaluations to assess a therapeutic effect. “explains Luc Mallet, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Paris Est Créteil and researcher at the Paris Brain Institute.

The present study confirms the benefit of stimulating different deep brain structures in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are resistant to other available treatments, underlining the interest of precisely identifying the neural networks underlying these disorders. Research is still needed to identify precise characteristics that predict whether or not patients will respond to deep brain stimulation.

* Mallet, L., Du Montcel, S. T., Clair, A.-H., Arbus, C., Bardinet, E., Baup, N., Chabardès, S., Chéreau, I., Czernecki, V., Fontaine, D., Harika-Germaneau, G., Haynes, W. I., Houeto, J.-L., Jaafari, N., Krack, P., Millet, B., Navarro, S., Polosan, M., Pelissolo, A. and Welter, M.-L. (2019) ‘Long-term effects of subthalamic stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial’, Brain Stimulation, 12(4), 1080-1082.

Source
Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic, Accumbens, or Caudate Nuclei for Patients With Severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Study.
 Welter ML, Alves Dos Santos JF, Clair AH, Lau B, Diallo HM, Fernandez-Vidal S, Belaid H, Pelissolo A, Domenech P, Karachi C, Mallet L. Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Oct 2

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/brain-stimulation-obsessive-compulsive-disorders/feed/ 0
Neural mechanisms resolving exploitation-exploration dilemmas in the medial prefrontal cortex https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neural-mechanisms/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neural-mechanisms/#respond Thu, 08 Oct 2020 10:12:18 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20105

Everyday life often requires arbitrating between pursuing an ongoing action plan by possibly adjusting it versus exploring a new action plan instead. Resolving For more information ]]>

Everyday life often requires arbitrating between pursuing an ongoing action plan by possibly adjusting it versus exploring a new action plan instead. Resolving this so-called exploitation-exploration dilemma involves the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Using human intracranial electrophysiological recordings, we discovered that neural activity in the ventral mPFC infers and tracks the reliability of the ongoing plan to proactively encode upcoming action outcomes as either learning signals or potential triggers to explore new plans. By contrast, the dorsal mPFC exhibits neural responses to action outcomes, which results in either improving or abandoning the ongoing plan. Thus, the mPFC resolves the exploitation-exploration dilemma through a two-stage, predictive coding process: a proactive ventromedial stage that constructs the functional signification of upcoming action outcomes and a reactive dorsomedial stage that guides behavior in response to action outcomes.

Source

Neural mechanisms resolving exploitation-exploration dilemmas in the medial prefrontal cortex.

Domenech P, Rheims S, Koechlin E. Science. 2020 Aug 28

]]> https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neural-mechanisms/feed/ 0
WINDOW TO OUR DREAMS AND NIGHTMARES https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/dreams-nightmares/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/dreams-nightmares/#respond Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:43:46 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20342 What could be more enigmatic than a dream? That experience we live every night, even if we don't remember it when we wake up. What can they teach us? The progress of For more information ]]> What could be more enigmatic than a dream? That experience we live every night, even if we don’t remember it when we wake up. What can they teach us? The progress of neurosciences allows us today to better understand this mysterious phenomenon. In a review published in Lancet Neurology, Francesca Sidari, Katja Valli and Isabelle Arnulf, head of the sleep pathology department at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and researcher at the Paris Brain Institute, explore the different aspects of our dreams and nightmares and the prospects for neurological diseases.

Dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, while we are disconnected from the environment. Thanks to recent progress in neuroimaging techniques, it is now becoming possible to relate dream features to specific patterns of brain activity. Some conditions occurring in patients with neurological disorders, such as lucid dreams and parasomnias, not only have diagnostic value, but also offer a window into the dream process. They show that dreaming is reflected in physiological signals, behaviours, and brain activity patterns, and that the body can enact dream content. Yet, the dream body can also be distinct from the real body; in their dreams, patients with congenital paraplegia can walk, those with sleep apnoea rarely suffocate, and phantom limb pain can disappear. These conditions provide valuable models for future studies investigating the mechanisms that underlie oneiric experiences.

Source
Dreams and nightmares in healthy adults and in patients with sleep and neurological disorders.
 Siclari F, Valli K, Arnulf I. Lancet Neurol. 2020.

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/dreams-nightmares/feed/ 0
Cohort Covid Neuroscience project offers insight to COVID-19 risks and impacts https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neuroscience-covid-19-risks-impacts/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neuroscience-covid-19-risks-impacts/#respond Mon, 28 Sep 2020 10:18:50 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=20047 Paris Brain Institute's Cohort Covid Neuroscience project is studying the neurological and psychiatric consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection over the course of one For more information ]]> Paris Brain Institute’s Cohort Covid Neuroscience project is studying the neurological and psychiatric consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection over the course of one year. This unique study focuses on two aspects: the direct effects of Covid-19 on the central nervous system and the impact of the infection on patients suffering from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

The project’s initial results, six months after the start of the study, have already identified a notable range of impacts of the disease and factors that impact the severity of COVID-19.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) can increase the risk of severe COVID-19, according to study findings published in JAMA Network. In the way that age and obesity are recognized factors, the severity of neurological disability as a result of MS (the scale of which is known as the EDSS score) is linked to increased COVID-19 risk (requiring at least one hospitalization), although no association was found between disease modifying therapy (DMTs) exposure to treat the neurological condition and COVID-19 severity.

Several types of brain abnormalities have been identified in patients with Covid-19, through brain imaging and the neuroradiology teams of the medical-university Neuroscience Department of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. Published in Radiology, these findings provide important brain imaging data in patients with COVID-19 and identifies several potential brain targets for CoV-2 SARS infection.

Other publications in the European journal of neurology describe common features of encephalopathy visible on PET-scan, following SARS CoV-2 infection, which may reflect an immune mechanism. Cases of movement disorders were also reported, such as upper limb postural and action tremor, orthostatic tremor and myoclonus. Appearing several weeks after intensive care unit discharge, several hypotheses will be addressed in the future on the mechanisms involved, from direct central nervous system damage by SARS-CoV-2 and immune-mediated mechanism to metabolic origin.

Initial findings are helping researchers and clinicians build a better understanding of the neurological and psychiatric manifestations of Covid-19 and to develop new treatments to help patients in the best possible way. The efforts of researchers and clinicians to better characterize the neurological symptoms of patients have led to the development of a new therapeutic approach in intensive care units.

In the early weeks of the pandemic, neurological symptoms were reported by physicians in patients affected by Covid-19, such as loss of smell or taste, but also more serious conditions such as seizures or stroke. Faced with this challenge, in April 2020, over just a few weeks, the project mobilized the entire forces of the Neuroscience medical-university department of the AP-HP Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and the Paris Brain Institute, supported by the International Automobile Federation (FIA), the FIA Foundation and the Institute’s donors. Researchers and clinicians have accomplished the feat of setting up the study programme in a short time-frame, from clinical and ethical authorizations to the establishment of the database and a steering committee.

More than 500 subjects are now enrolled in the study. Data collection, inclusion in a common database and analysis by the Paris Brain Institute’s biostatistics teams can be done in parallel with the entry of patients into the cohort. This is a considerable time saving in order to obtain information on the neurological consequences of Covid-19 and to be able to act almost in “real time” in patients.

Much more work is in the pipeline on stroke, brain tumor patients, and Parkinson’s disease. In addition, there is still much data already acquired to be analyzed, particularly biological data, which will provide a better understanding of the immune response to infection in patients suffering from immune-related pathologies such as multiple sclerosis. At the same time, long-term follow-up of patients on clinical, cognitive, biological and imaging aspects is underway to define the characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the long term.

This study, which has mobilized the entire neurology and psychiatry community at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and many French centers, now goes beyond the national borders with collaborations with prestigious research centers such as Yale or Liverpool University and in international consortiums. They will be key to increasing our knowledge of the infection and its consequences on the central nervous system, always to the primary benefit of patients.

Sources: Publications resulting from research

  • Delorme et al. Covid-19-related encephalopathy: a case series with brain FDG-PET/CT findings. Eur J Neurol. 2020. DOI:1111/ene.14478
  • Chougar et al. Retrospective observational study of brain MRI findings in patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological manifestations. Radiology. 2020 DOI:1148/radiol.2020202422
  • Louapre et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and multiple sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2020 DOI:1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581
  • Altmayer et al. Therapeutic plasma exchange in a critically ill Covid-19 patient. J Clin Apher. 2020DOI:1002/jca.21830
  • Cao et al. Severe Covid-19-related encephalitis can respond to immunotherapy. Brain. Accepted. (preprint: hal-02918661)
  • Cuhna et al. Movement disorders as a new neurological clinical picture in severe SARS-CoV2 infection. Eur J Neurol. 2020. DOI:1111/ene.14474

 

 

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/neuroscience-covid-19-risks-impacts/feed/ 0
RICHARD MILLE STRENGTHENS HIS COMMITMENT TO THE PARIS BRAIN INSTITUTE https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/richard-mille-strengthens-his-commitment-to-the-paris-brain-institute/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/richard-mille-strengthens-his-commitment-to-the-paris-brain-institute/#respond Thu, 17 Sep 2020 13:58:03 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19919 Richard Mille, new member of the Paris Brain Institute's Campaign Committee, mobilizes his company and supports actions to finance research programs and increase the For more information ]]> Richard Mille, new member of the Paris Brain Institute’s Campaign Committee, mobilizes his company and supports actions to finance research programs and increase the Institute’s visibility.

The first event that symbolizes this mobilization is the 24 Hours of Le Mans.

 

  •  1st 24 Hours of Le Mans for the Richard Mille Racing Team 
  • 100% Female crew composed of Tatiana Calderón, Sophia Floersch and Beitske Visser 
  • The race is dedicated to the Paris Brain Institute

Speed records may or may not be broken next weekend at Le Mans. Stereotypes, on the other hand, definitely will! The Richard Mille Racing Team, an all-female driver line-up is revving up this, the 88th edition of the world’s most famous motor race. 

[…]

‘Since the creation of this institute in Paris some 10 years ago it has grown to become one of the leading research centres for brain and spinal illnesses that can touch each and every one of us by the sheer magnitude of all those affected. This institute is the 2nd largest in the world dedicated to this cause and gathers very experienced researchers from all corners of the globe. My friendship towards Professor Gérard Saillant and Jean Todt only strengthens my commitment to this cause and to bring it to the attention of all those close to the brand so that as many people as possible are aware of this institute and its quest to cure the multiple diseases linked to the brain,’ explains Richard Mille.

 

 ‘I would like to warmly thank Richard Mille for his renewed support to the Paris Brain Institute through his first participation in the 24 Heures du Mans with an all-female team. This unique sporting competition embodies values of combativeness, perseverance and excellence that the Paris Brain Institute fully shares. Richard Mille’s commitment at our side represents a great strength for us, as it allows us to further develop the means of our ambitions, to increase the visibility of our commitment to an essential public health cause and gives our researchers the opportunity to go even further in their research work at the service of patients’. – Professor Gérard Saillant, President of the Paris Brain Institute.

Read Richard Mille’s Press Release in its entirety

Richard Mile

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/richard-mille-strengthens-his-commitment-to-the-paris-brain-institute/feed/ 0
Huntington’s disease: brain abnormalities detectable as early as the embryonic stage https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/huntingtons-disease-alters-human-neurodevelopment/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/huntingtons-disease-alters-human-neurodevelopment/#respond Fri, 17 Jul 2020 13:15:14 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19551 Although Huntington’s disease is a late-manifesting neurodegenerative disorder, both mouse studies and neuroimaging studies of presymptomatic mutation carriers For more information ]]> Although Huntington’s disease is a late-manifesting neurodegenerative disorder, both mouse studies and neuroimaging studies of presymptomatic mutation carriers suggest that Huntington’s disease might affect neurodevelopment. To determine whether this is actually the case, we examined tissue from human fetuses (13 weeks gestation) that carry the Huntington’s disease mutation. These tissues showed clear abnormalities in the developing cortex, including mislocalization of mutant huntingtin and junctional complex proteins, defects in neuroprogenitor cell polarity and differentiation, abnormal ciliogenesis, and changes in mitosis and cell cycle progression. We observed the same phenomena in Huntington’s disease mouse embryos, where we linked these abnormalities to defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of progenitor cells. Huntington’s disease thus has a neurodevelopmental component and is not solely a degenerative disease.

Sources :

Huntington disease alters human neurodevelopment

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/huntingtons-disease-alters-human-neurodevelopment/feed/ 0
A LARGE-SCALE EXPLORATION OF GENETIC FORMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/a-large-scale-exploration-of-genetic-forms-of-parkinsons-disease/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/a-large-scale-exploration-of-genetic-forms-of-parkinsons-disease/#respond Mon, 06 Jul 2020 08:19:27 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19450 Studies of the phenotype and population distribution of rare genetic forms of parkinsonism are required, now that gene-targeting approaches for Parkinson's disease For more information ]]> Studies of the phenotype and population distribution of rare genetic forms of parkinsonism are required, now that gene-targeting approaches for Parkinson’s disease have reached the clinical trial stage. We evaluated the frequencies of PRKN, PINK1, and DJ-1 mutations in a cohort of 1587 cases. Mutations were found in 14.1% of patients: 27.6% were familial and 8% were isolated. PRKN was the gene most frequently mutated in Caucasians whereas PINK1 mutations predominated in Arab-Berber individuals. Patients with PRKN mutations had an earlier age at onset, and less asymmetry, levodopa-induced motor complications, dysautonomia, and dementia than those without mutations.

 

Source :

Characterization of recessive Parkinson’s disease in a large multicenter study. Lesage S, et al. Ann Neurol. 2020 May 30.

]]>
https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/a-large-scale-exploration-of-genetic-forms-of-parkinsons-disease/feed/ 0
COVID-19: FIA FOUNDATION AND FIA SUPPORT THE BRAIN INSTITUTE https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/covid-19-fia-foundation-and-fia-support-the-brain-institute/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/covid-19-fia-foundation-and-fia-support-the-brain-institute/#respond Tue, 30 Jun 2020 12:18:17 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19429 LAUNCH OF AN UNPRECEDENTED STUDY TO FIND OUT THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:

THE FIA FOUNDATION AND FIA PLEDGE SUPPORT FOR THE PARIS BRAIN For more information ]]> LAUNCH OF AN UNPRECEDENTED STUDY TO FIND OUT THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:

THE FIA FOUNDATION AND FIA PLEDGE SUPPORT FOR THE PARIS BRAIN INSTITUTE

 

The Paris Brain Institute, in partnership with the AP-HP, Sorbonne-Université, Medico-University Department of Neurosciences at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, with grant of €400,000 from the FIA Foundation – historical patron of the Institute with a focus on public health – and support from FIA, is launching a major study to rapidly and accurately assess all the potential neurological and psychiatric impacts of Covid-19 on affected patients, with the aim of improving patient management, follow-up and rehabilitation.

 

Covid-19 is a multi-targeted viral disease whose disorders caused by the virus surprise by the diversity of symptoms, sometimes atypical. In addition to the lungs, many other organs can be affected by Covid-19 and lead to neurological complications such as loss of smell, loss of taste, headaches, dizziness, convulsions, stroke, altered consciousness and hemiplegia. In addition, the respiratory difficulties observed in patients with Covid-19 may be due to brain stem involvement in addition to the lungs. This region, located between the brain and the spinal cord, contains the centres that control breathing. However, experts know little about the overall impact of this coronavirus on the central nervous system, even though more than 10 million people worldwide are currently affected by the virus.

 

The data collected will be the subject of in-depth analysis, notably using artificial intelligence. The information obtained will be exploited in real time in order to draw practical consequences for patients as quickly as possible by May 2021.

 

 At the Paris Brain Institute, our mission is to find in order to cure. Therefore, the observations of our eminent specialists on this study will be decisive in helping people with Covid-19 to receive appropriate care. This ambitious project is led by the Neuroscience Medico-University Department at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital and the clinicians-researchers at the Paris Brain Institute, thanks to the FIA Foundation and the FIA, in favor of health for all. I would like to thank them very warmly. 

Gérard Saillant, President of the Paris Brain Institute and President of the FIA Medical Commission.

 The study will focus on:

– the neuropsychiatric manifestations of the affected individuals

– the psychiatric consequences for the patients themselves (due in particular to very long periods of resuscitation) as well as for their relatives

– the consequences for patients already suffering from neurological pathologies such as inflammatory diseases (including multiple sclerosis) and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s). 

 

The long-term effects of the coronavirus on health are only beginning to be understood, so this important project will provide vital information to share with the world. We at the FIA Foundation are proud of our longstanding relationship with the Institute and its cutting-edge research.

Saul Billingsley, Executive Director of the FIA Foundation.

 

The Paris Brain Institute is probably one of the few centres in the world that is able to provide a comprehensive view of the neurology and psychiatry of Covid-19 infection. In the medium term, this will enable us as health professionals to be prepared to face a new pandemic and to have all the weapons at our disposal to better fight it. We can also think that this infection, when it strikes brains already damaged by a neurodegenerative or inflammatory disease, could have unknown effects. It is very important to know whether we are going to observe very atypical developments, for example in patients being monitored for Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis. There’s still a lot we don’t know. 

Prof. Jean-Yves Delattre, Medical Director of the Paris Brain Institute and Director of the AP-HP-Sorbonne University Neuroscience Medico-University Department at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Prof. Jean-Christophe Corvol, Scientific Director of the project and Dr. Delorme, Principal Investigator.

]]> https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/covid-19-fia-foundation-and-fia-support-the-brain-institute/feed/ 0
Two new fundamental discoveries for the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/two-new-fundamental-discoveries-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-suffering-from-disorders-of-consciousness/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/two-new-fundamental-discoveries-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-suffering-from-disorders-of-consciousness/#respond Thu, 25 Jun 2020 13:57:03 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19401 Two new fundamental discoveries for the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness

The research team led by Prof. Lionel Naccache For more information ]]> Two new fundamental discoveries for the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness

The research team led by Prof. Lionel Naccache at the Paris Brain Institute (Sorbonne Université, APHP, INSERM, CNRS) has just published two important studies which concern patients suffering from a lasting disturbance of consciousness (e.g.: patients in ” vegetative state “or” minimally conscious state”). These two original studies correspond to part of the PhD work of Dr. Bertrand Hermann (INSERM, APHP, University of Paris) carried out under the supervision of Lionel Naccache.

 

A new clinical sign to probe the state of consciousness

The first work describes the discovery and validation of a new sign of clinical examination which makes it possible to identify among these non-communicating patients those whose brain function is the richest.  The researchers observed that the auditory startle reflex in response to noise (i.e.: blinking of the eyelids following a sudden sound) presented a habituation in patients capable of anticipating stimulus repetition. When the sounds were repeated, these patients were able to inhibit this behavioral response. Conversely, an inextinguishable startle response was present in patients whose detailed clinical examination and cerebral explorations (EEG with quantified high density, cognitive evoked potentials, diffusion tensor MRI, PET-scan with fluoro-deoxy- glucose) revealed very poor brain and cognitive activity. Beyond this precious diagnostic value, the presence of this clinical sign, – easy to find at patient’s bedside -, also made it possible to predict an improvement in their state of consciousness at six months. The invention of new clinical signs based on the use of the most recent structural and functional brain imaging techniques also demonstrates the contemporary vitality and renewal of neurological semiology. Published in the world’s largest neurology journal (Brain), this article was chosen by the editorial board as “Editor’s choice” because of its innovative nature and importance.

 

Reference : Hermann, B., A. Ben Salah, V. Perlbarg, M. Valente, N. Pyatigorskaia, M. O. Habert, F. Raimondo, J. Stender, D. Galanaud, A. Kas, L. Puybasset, P. Perez, S. J.D., B. Rohaut and L. Naccache (in press). “Habituation of auditory startle reflex is a new sign of minimally conscious state.” Brain

https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa159/5862031?searchresult=1

Improving consciousness with transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex

The second work reveals how transcranial direct current electrical stimulation (tDCS) of the frontal lobe can improve conscious state in some of these patients. By comparing patients who showed behavioral improvement after a single session of tDCS, to patients who did not show such an improvement, the researchers demonstrated that the clinical response to tDCS was associated with an increase in specific EEG markers of consciousness (long distance oscillations and communication between the prefrontal and parietal regions in the theta frequency band). The researchers also used a simulation model of the distribution of electric current based on the individual anatomy of the patients, to show that the clinical response to tDCS was correlated with the intensity of the electric field in the cortex next to the stimulation electrodes. These results are important both on the clinical level – by paving the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies for personalized patterns of tDCS stimulation – and on the level of basic research by confirming the importance of the prefrontal cortex and the fronto-parietal network in the physiology of consciousness, – as postulated by the theory of global neuronal space developed over the past twenty years by Stanislas Dehaene, Jean-Pierre Changeux and Lionel Naccache. This work was published in the journal Scientific Reports of the Nature group.

 

Reference : Hermann, B., Raimondo, F., Hirsch, L., Huang, Y., Denis-Valente M., Pérez P., Engemann, D., Faugeras, F., Weiss, N., Demeret, S., Rohaut, B., Parra, L.C., Sitt, J.D., Naccache, L. Combined behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for a direct cortical effect of prefrontal tDCS on disorders of consciousness. Sci Rep 10, 4323 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61180-2

]]> https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/two-new-fundamental-discoveries-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-suffering-from-disorders-of-consciousness/feed/ 0
APPLY NOW FOR THE IMIND – INTERNATIONAL MASTER IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES ! https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/apply-now-for-the-imind-international-master-in-neurodegenerative-diseases/ https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/apply-now-for-the-imind-international-master-in-neurodegenerative-diseases/#respond Wed, 03 Jun 2020 09:19:37 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://institutducerveau-icm.org/?post_type=actualite&p=19335 Interested in Neurosciences and neurodegeneratives diseases?

The application campaign for the iMIND - International Master in Neurodegenerative Diseases - Master 2 For more information ]]> Interested in Neurosciences and neurodegeneratives diseases?

The application campaign for the iMIND – International Master in Neurodegenerative Diseases – Master 2 program is now open! CLOSING DATE: JUNE 30, 2020.

iMIND is a selective programme built on the partnership between the Paris Brain Institute and Sorbonne University.

 

iMIND gathers expert researchers from the Paris Brain Institute and Neuroscience Paris Seine Institute, providing the students with an immersive experience in up-to-date innovative research topics in order to understand the functioning of the brain in normal and pathological conditions.

Details regarding iMIND can be found:

In the two following links:

Information regarding the application process are detailed here.

]]> https://institutducerveau-icm.org/en/actualite/apply-now-for-the-imind-international-master-in-neurodegenerative-diseases/feed/ 0